Deceptive advertising : Persuade people in commercial transactions that they might otherwise aviod.
Persuasive techniques: Strategies used by advertisers who want you to buy their product.
Pathos: An appeal to emotion
An advertisement using pathos will attempt to evoke an emotional response in
the consumer. Sometimes, it is a positive emotion such as happiness: an
image of people enjoying themselves while drinking Pepsi. Other times,
advertisers will use negative emotions such as pain: a person having back
problems after buying the “wrong” mattress. Pathos can also include emotions
such as fear and guilt: images of a starving child persuade you to send money.
Logos: An appeal to logic or reason.
An advertisement using logos will give you the evidence and statistics you
need to fully understand what the product does. The logos of an
advertisement will be the “straight facts” about the product: One glass of
Florida orange juice contains 75% of your daily Vitamin C needs.
Ethos: An appeal to credibility or character.
An advertisement using ethos will try to convince you that the company is
more reliable, honest, and credible; therefore, you should buy its product.
Ethos often involves statistics from reliable experts, such as nine out of ten
dentists agree that Crest is the better than any other brand or Americas
dieters choose Lean Cuisine. Often, a celebrity endorses a product to lend it
more credibility: Catherine Zeta-Jones makes us want to switch to T-Mobile.
Plain Folks– using a person who represents the “typical” target of the ad to communicate the message that we are alike, and I use/buy/believe this so you should too.
Transfer– using names or pictures of famous people but not direct quotes
Bandwagon– using social pressure to persuade people to purchase the product because ‘everyone else is doing it’.
Testimonial– using words of an expert or famous person to persuade
Glittering Generalities– in glowing terms and offering no evidence the speaker or advertiser supports a candidate or a solution to social problems
Common Sense- trying to persuade using everyday sense of good or bad/right or wrong
Emotional Words– words are used that make you feel strongly about an idea
Reasoning– luring the reader by listing or explaining reasons or an idea
A process or model to allow a company or organization to focus limited resources on the best opportunities to increase sales and thereby achieve a sustainable competitive advantage.
Marketing within advertising:
Attention – It catches the eye or ear and stands out amid the clutter of competing advertisements.
Interest – It arouses interest and delivers sufficient impact in the message or offering.
Desire – It creates a desire to learn more or crave ownership.
Action – It spurs an action which leads to achievement of the ad’s original objective – ie: it prompts potential customers to purchase or use your product or service.
Psychology behind advertising
Walter Dill Scott published a book on advertising in 1903 called The Theory and Practice of Advertising. Interestingly, he asserted that people were highly suggestible and obedient.
Scott wrote “Man has been called the reasoning animal but he could with greater truthfulness be called the creature of suggestion. He is reasonable, but he is to a greater extent suggestible” (Benjamin & Baker, p. 119-120).
Scott believed in using two advertising techniques, which involved commands and coupons: 1) stating a direct command such as “Use such and such beauty product” and 2) asking consumers to complete a coupon and mail it into the company.
While there was no scientific evidence to support the effectiveness of Scott’s advertising techniques (there were testimonials), he was critical in psychology’s participation in advertising.