Why Were Men Led To Believe They Were The Dominant sex? Advertisements complete

Brief Summary:

In the 1950’s sexism towards women was considered ‘normal’ and was expected. The adverts used all of 1950’s classic styling and imagery except from a controversial quote. I wondered how could I recreate advertisements from the fifties but with a totally new concept. This is when I thought of flipping the sexism around and aiming the advertisements towards men. This is a light hearted project, I am not an extreme feminist. started off broad and researched into the 1950’s, after this I discovered there’s not many gaps in this market when it comes to this era, everything has been done. What had been done wasn’t anything that stood out, it was all based around 1950’s typical diners and vintage theme. I wanted something that would grab attention and get people talking. In which I hope this project succeeds on doing so.

 

hanging on wall forgallery all3RGB all3 copy

Behance link: https://www.behance.net/gallery/16797279/Why-Were-Men-Led-To-Believe-They-Were-The-Dominant-Sex

Finalised Advert Ideas

After a whole load of research, the ideas for the three adverts have been finalised! There will shortly be a blog post with an overview of the research done to get to this stage.

 

Advert One:

Washing Machine Advertisement

Slogan: So simple, that even a man can use it

Product Name: Spinner Machine

Advert Outline Idea:

Man smiling with his new purchase

The point of the advert

Swapping household chores stereotype, showing that men can do/ are happy to do household chores as well.

 

Advert Two:

‘Man Flu’ Medicine

Slogan: For when he is ill but you don’t have time to be

Product Name: ‘Man Flu’ Relief, Betty’s Pharmacy

Advert Idea:

A woman working in an office whilst a man is at home ill in bed

The point of this advert:

To show that supposedly that men are the weaker sex, women get on with life and ‘cope’

 

Advert Three:

Chocolate Bar Advertisement

Slogan: Because Chocolate is more reliable than a man

Product Name: Milk Chocolate, Sweet Escape

Advert Idea:

A woman posing happily with a chocolate bar

The point of this advert?

To show women don’t need men to be happy, this makes men insecure as they like to feel as if they’re needed.

 

 

Ideas may be expanded but these are the basic ideas to start basing the designs upon for now!

 

Inspiration for this project

http://theinspirationroom.com/daily/2010/maximidia-vintage-seminars/ MaxiMídia is a company in Brazil focused on modernizing and developing the communications industry. They worked with Moma São Paulo to develop “Vintage”, a print advertising campaign focused on advertising seminars for professionals, introducing them to the new opportunities associated with social networking. The ads are designed in the futuristic style of the 1950s, showing Skype, Twitter, Facebook and YouTube in terms of established technologies which are now old hat. maximidia-facebook maximidia-skype maximidia-twitter maximidia-youtube

 

These examples give a modern feel but are still using aspects of 1950’s design.

I will recreate my adverts more along these lines, than solely based upon the original adverts, as I don’t feel the original advertisements look as professional as these, and I am taking this project with a ‘fresh’ approach.

 

 

 

Methodology – For the main research question

Main Research Question:

 Why were men led to believe that they were the dominant sex?

Research Method: Articles and books to find out:

Why/how men in the 50’s were led to believe that they were the dominant sex

Are men still the dominant sex today?

Feminists point of view/ In general opinions of others about this topic

The aims of this research it to help how to approach this topic and to see how sexism is perceived

 

 Main Points from Articles:

http://www.theguardian.com/money/2009/sep/07/sexism-city-case-study

  • Women are always paid less – when managers have to make a decision, they will pay the people who will make a fuss and complain more
  • Because people have the perception women won’t complain, they’re getting less. As a woman, you have to make it three times as clear that you will not accept whatever it is: lower bonus, less than your target, you have to make it very, very clear.

     

  • Sometimes women hold themselves back by not playing the game, by not being aggressive enough, or not being brave enough, even if they haven’t done it before.

http://ideas.time.com/2013/12/16/its-a-mans-world-and-it-always-will-be/

  •  And without strong men as models to either embrace or (for dissident lesbians) to resist, women will never attain a centered and profound sense of themselves as women.
  • It was always the proper mission of feminism to attack and reconstruct the ossified social practices that had led to wide-ranging discrimination against women. But surely it was and is possible for a progressive reform movement to achieve that without stereotyping, belittling or demonizing men
  •  but most women and children will be expecting men to scrounge for food and water and to defend the home turf. Indeed, men are absolutely indispensable right now, invisible as it is to most feminists, who seem blind to the infrastructure that makes their own work lives possible
  • is overwhelmingly men who do the dirty, dangerous work of building roads, pouring concrete, laying bricks, tarring roofs, hanging electric wires, excavating natural gas and sewage lines, cutting and clearing trees, and bulldozing the landscape for housing developments. It is men who heft and weld the giant steel beams that frame our office buildings, and it is men who do the hair-raising work of insetting and sealing the finely tempered plate-glass windows of skyscrapers 50 stories tall.
  • The modern economy, with its vast production and distribution network, is a male epic, in which women have found a productive role — but women were not its author. Surely, modern women are strong enough now to give credit where credit is due!

http://web2.airmail.net/ktrig246/out_of_cave/mf.html

  • Judging from “Dr” Gray’s popularity, it appears that our society still believes in sex-role theory , which says that we humans learn from society’s institutions to behave in ways appropriate to our sex. According to sex role theory, men are aggressive, rational, dominant, and objective or in Gray’s anatomy, Martians value “power, competency, efficiency, and achievement”.(1) Women are passive, intuitive, submissive, and subjective. Or rather, Venutians value “love, communication, beauty, and relationships”.(2)
  • However, what happens when men don’t act masculine and women don’t act feminine? Sex-role theory, buttressed by self-help books like MMWV, has a ready answer. At the sternest level, boys may be labeled “effeminate” while girls may be called “dykes”. At a more mild level, they will be accused of “role reversal” and warned about losing “passion” in their relationships, as the good “doctor” warned in the Intoduction to MMWV.
  • femininity is constructed around adaptation to male power. Its central feature is attractiveness to men, which includes physical appearance, ego-massaging, suppression of “power” emotions such as anger, nurturance of children, exclusive heterosexuality, sexual availability without sexual assertiveness, and sociability (“Men like women who smile.”)(9) One could say that masculinity and femininity are societal euphemisms for male dominance and female subordination
  • So what is really happening between men and women in 1998 America? In a nutshell, denial. We deny that we’re paranoid about gender equity, we deny that men get society’s difference dividend, and we deny that Gray’s anatomy promotes a modernized patriarchy. Instead of courageously following the lead of such pioneering couples as the Johnson’s and the Abzug’s, we pander to the lowest common denominator and settle for stale sex-role theory dressed up as Mars and Venus. Fulfilling relationships are within our reach. But there is a price. Betsy, Harold, Bella, and Martin paid it in the 1950’s and 1960’s

http://www.pearsonhighered.com/assets/hip/us/hip_us_pearsonhighered/samplechapter/0132448300.pdf

  • These rigid definitions are associated with the development of stereotypes—oversimplified conceptions that people who occupy the same status group share certain traits in common. Although stereotypes can include positive traits, they most often consist of negative ones that are then used to justify discrimination against members of a given group. The statuses of male and female are often stereotyped according to the traits they are assumed to possess by virtue of their biological makeup. Women are stereotyped as flighty and unreliable because they possess uncontrollable raging hormones that fuel unpredictable emotional outbursts. The assignment of negative stereotypes can result in sexism, the belief that the status of female is inferior to the status of male. Males are not immune to the negative consequences of sexism, but females are more likely to experience it because the status sets they occupy are more stigmatized than those occupied by males. Compared to males, for example, females are more likely to occupy statuses inside and outside their homes that are associated with less power, less prestige, and less pay or no pay. Beliefs about inferiority due to biology are rein- forced and then used to justify discrimination directed toward females.
  • Sexism is perpetuated by systems of patriarchy, male-dominated social struc- tures leading to the oppression of women. Patriarchy, by definition, exhibits androcentrism—male-centered norms operating throughout all social institu- tions that become the standard to which all persons adhere. Sexism is reinforced when patriarchy and androcentrism combine to perpetuate beliefs that gender roles are biologically determined and therefore unalterable. For example, throughout the developing world beliefs about a woman’s biological unsuitability for other than domestic roles have restricted opportunities for education and achieving literacy. These restrictions have made men the guardians of what has been written, disseminated, and interpreted regarding gender and the placement of men and women in society.

    Article in Glamour magazine : Generation Angry: People power is back and it’s women leading the charge.

  • Women are fed up of being trivialised,objectified and dehumanised.
  • “Teenage girls are portrayed for only liking makeup and boys”

Memes are currently widely popular within the online society, here are some Memes that are against feminism (Basically take the mickey out of women and their feminist views)

http://funnie.st/460512/feminist-memes/?utm_source=FB&utm_medium=HM&utm_campaign=Mehran&epic=mu

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Feminism-these-daysfeminist-logic-meme

Female empowered music such as Beyonce – Who runs the world

This article looks into

  • song lyrics that are sexist towards women
  • Women empowered lyrics
  • Sexism in pop culture

http://www.osisa.org/buwa/global/“who-runs-world…girls”-beyoncé-feminist-or-not

There have been suggestions that degrading sexual references are far more common in some genres than others, with the vast majority of such references being found in rap and R&B/Hip-Hop. Interestingly, these happen to be the most popular genres among young people today, regardless of demographic characteristics.[7] In Misogyny in Rap Music: A Content Analysis of Prevalence and Meanings,[8] the research identified five misogynistic themes that appear with some frequency in rap music – (a) derogatory naming and shaming of women; (b) sexual objectification of women; (c) distrust of women; (d) legitimisation of violence against women; and (e) celebration of prostitution and pimping.

Individuals, state actors, feminists, gender activists and many other key players continue to grapple with violence against women so it feels like a blow in the face to listen to the lyrics in the song ‘Love the Way you Lie’ by Eminem featuring Rihanna:

Come inside, pick up your bags off the sidewalk
Don’t you hear sincerity in my voice when I talk?
Told you this is my fault, look me in the eyeball
Next time I’m pissed, I’ll aim my fist at the drywall

Next time? There won’t be no next time
I apologize, even though I know it’s lies
I’m tired of the games, I just want her back, I know I’m a liar
If she ever tries to f**ng leave again, I’m a tie her to the bed
And set this house on fire.[9]

This song tells the story of a serial woman batterer and is loaded with violent lyrics – and clearly it is opposed to everything that feminism stands for.

Can you be a feminist and enjoy pop music?

The ‘Perfect B***h’ debates also raised another question – can you be a feminist and enjoy pop culture and pop music specifically? Despite all the perceived and apparent misgivings about whether or not there are feminist spaces within pop culture, I strongly believe in the existence of such spaces. In the pop music arena there are certain songs that are in sync with feminist goals and objectives. I will use Katy Perry’s ‘I kissed a Girl’ and Lady Gaga’s ‘Born This Way’ to explore feminist views on sexuality in pop songs:

I kissed a girl and I liked it,
the taste of her cherry chapstick.
I kissed a girl just to try it,
I hope my boyfriend don’t mind it.
It felt so wrong,
it felt so right.
Don’t mean I’m in love tonight.
I kissed a girl and I liked it (I liked it). [10]

No matter gay, straight, or bi,
Lesbian, transgendered life,
I’m on the right track baby,
I was born to survive.
No matter black, white or beige
Chola or orient made,
I’m on the right track baby,
I was born to be brave. [11]

Although feminist theories regarding sexuality vary widely, they all seek to challenge and refute compulsory heterosexuality and hetero-normativity, as this infringes each individual’s right to choose who to be involved with sexually. I label both the above songs feminist as they not only create a space through which sexuality can be discussed but they also clearly challenge hetero-normativity. Katy Perry’s lyrics point to a girl who kissed another girl and liked it. However, when she accepted the Woman of the Year award from Billboard in 2012, Perry stated that although she believes in the strength of women she is not a feminist,[12] while Lady Gaga is also on record as saying she is a ‘little bit of a feminist’.[13] Needless to say, there was a public outcry by declared feminists following this public ‘denouncing’ of the movement.

This then brings to the fore questions that I personally like to keep asking – is feminism in the labelling or in the actions? When does one become a feminist? When women come out in the open and claim to be such? Or when they start believing that women and men are equal and start pushing for equality whether it is the private or public spheres? If one chooses to put the emphasis on the labelling then certainly a non- feminist cannot sing a feminist song and so Katy Perry’s song is of no benefit to the feminist movement. However, if one chooses to focus on actions then these songs are as feminist as songs can get.

Beyoncé Knowles’ ‘Run the World (Girls)’ is one of her many refreshing songs in terms of its lyrical content, as it actually paints a picture of an empowered woman. The song’s title and lyrics are an unapologetically aggressive message promotingfemale empowerment. The second verse of the song goes:

It’s hot up in here
DJ don’t be scared to run this, run this back
I’m reppin’ for the girls who taking over the world
Help me raise a glass for the college grads

41 rollin’ to let you know what time it is, check
You can’t hold me (you can’t hold me)
I work my 9 to 5, better cut my check
This goes out to all the women getting it in,
You’re on your grind
To other men that respect what I do
Please accept my shine
Boy I know you love it
How we’re smart enough to make these millions
Strong enough to bear the children
Then get back to business[14]

In what may seem to some as a contradiction of terms, the song’s video has scenes of scantily dressed women, including Beyoncé herself, gyrating seductively to the beat of the song. Does the video take away from the positivity of the title and lyrics? Or do the images actually reinforce it? For me this question is answered by how one interprets the on-going war on the female body. In many African contexts, women continue to fight – among other battles – the what-to-or-what-not-to-wear war. In a recent development, which focussed the world’s attention on the kingdom of Swaziland, the Swaziland Young Women’s Network organised a miniskirt march during 2012’s 16 days of activism to protest against a law making it a crime for women to wear miniskirts. Although the law criminalising the wearing of miniskirts was promulgated in 1889, a lot of people were openly supporting it and claiming that it was still relevant more than a century later. Against this backdrop, my interpretation of the dress code and dances in the video is that they represent a celebration, and total ownership, of the female body.

While sexual objectification of women remains an issue in a world that is increasingly becoming pro-choice, we should desist from blindly assuming that every scantily clad female we see in a pop video translates to sexual objectification. This undermines the ability of such individuals to make informed and conscious decisions regarding their bodies. As a musician, Beyoncé has built up one of the largest fan bases not only in the United States but also worldwide. She could sing or dance in a sack and still make millions, which makes me doubt that her videos are meant to portray her purely as an object for display and public consumption. I see them as statements telling patriarchy that you cannot tell me what to wear and how to carry my body.

As more and more women succeed in the music industry, we are starting to see a lot of semi-naked men in their videos and already there have been debates regarding male objectification. Females are now being given the opportunity to gaze at bare chested males in the same manner as males have long been able to stare at semi-clad females. And this raises another intriguing question – should we continue to bemoan female objectification in pop music videos or we should celebrate the increasing number of scantily-clad males as the first (dance) steps towards levelling the video playground?

Pop music undoubtedly contributes to the perpetuation of misogynist views of women because some of its lyrical content celebrates and condones violence against women and degrading sex. Although sexual objectification of women is a huge issue in the business, there is a need to avoid assuming that all women in pop music are, or feel, objectified because for some this is an avenue through which their empowerment and total ownership of their bodies can be channelled. The reality is that, depending on one’s understanding of feminism, there are spaces within pop music that can be described as being feminist.

 

 views on Yahoo answers:

https://uk.answers.yahoo.com/question/index?qid=20120702000200AAZnMEO

Screen Shot 2014-04-03 at 12.24.40

Answers:

  • In the past, yes, but today women now dominate. Women now lead men because they are more educated, driven and this has made them the preferred worker. Women are now driven more than men which has put them in positions of leadership. Women are the majority in the workforce and management and now run their homes while males are dependant or in a support role. Men’s power has diminished because they are no longer taught a role because of absent fathers.
  • No..because men do nothing except act like they run things. When in actuality its really women…Women carry babies for 9months inside them and that is no picnic. Ladies GIVE BIRTH! Ladies have to support their man so that he feels like a man,women have to make their man feel as though he is the dominant one by kinda stepping down a lil bit and ladies have perioids and cramps. Ect. They way society is today makes it seem like men do so much when actually they don’t. They do a lot but not as much. For example society makes it seem as though men are in charge of relationships. For instance proposal. People think that men should be the ones to propose and that’s wrong. Women should bbe able to do this and we do. I have nothing against guys…I love em to death. But if you really really think about it women go through hell starting at sometimes very early ages. And even when this hell called the menstrual cycle ends. Another hell begins called menapause. Its never ending. Women are spiritually mentally and physically built to withstand this and therefore are dominant.
  • Excellent question! Here’s my opinion/reply;
    I know it might sound crazy & all but I agree & disagree on the dominance matter. Here’s why; i don’t think dominance is defined by the sex of a person. 2 me, its defined by the character of the sex of a person,(in other words, on how the person acts.) therefore either or can be the dominant one. It’s just that men brag more about it. -MEN need women 2 be able 2 feel dominant, by dominating them. WOMAN need men 2 feel the need of dominance 2 be able 2 care/love 4 them, making the woman feel like the dominant one because she is needed 2 attend 2 the man. That’s why women find it attractive. It gives them the attention they long 4, so getting it makes the woman feel dominant because she’s getting what she wants. I hope it’s not 2 confusing 4 u. That’s just my thought though..or the way i see it. 😉
  • No. This is not true at all. This post reflects a very limited understanding of how men and women interact with each other.

    Women have something that men want. If you are not careful, you can find yourself in a position to take extraordinary risks for it, spend your entire monthly paycheck on it, betray your best friend for it.

    Trust me … you want it more than we do. And we can take it away at the drop of a hat. And you know this … that is why a lot of men will do anything to please the right woman.

    A man who is capable of turning it down — or who has options is more empowered. I mean you would be “dominant” if you did not have this serious weak-spot. It is quite a dent in your armor.

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  • Naturally a man is more dominant and woman is more submissive. Because a man is supposed to be the protector and the woman is supposed tinge the nurturer. Now this doesn’t mean that a man is supposed to be in charge and the woman is just to follow his lead. From a biblical standpoint that is 100% wrong. God made Eve out of Adams side symbolizing an equal union. Neither sex in front or back. Therefore the key to a successful marriage is an equal union. If the world were run with only the minds of men in control I would be just as bad as if he world was run with only the minds of women in control. Neither sex is he greater sex the sooner everybody realizes that he sooner people can get on with their lifes and stop worrying about such trivial things like who should be in the kitchen.
  • Not at all. Dominant and submissive tendencies exist in both men and women, and people should choose what works best for their relationships individually, regardless of gender. A person who is coerced into submission against their will is going to be completely miserable, and a person who is put into a dominant role with no desire or knowledge of that sort of thing is going to make a horrible leader.

 

 

Referencing – Why were men led to believe they were the dominant sex?

Case studies/ Research that needs to be read through:

http://www.theguardian.com/money/2009/sep/07/sexism-city-case-study

http://ideas.time.com/2013/12/16/its-a-mans-world-and-it-always-will-be/

http://web2.airmail.net/ktrig246/out_of_cave/mf.html

http://www.pearsonhighered.com/assets/hip/us/hip_us_pearsonhighered/samplechapter/0132448300.pdf

Article in Glamour magazine : Generation Angry: People power is back and it’s women leading the charge.

Feminist Meme’s: http://funnie.st/460512/feminist-memes/?utm_source=FB&utm_medium=HM&utm_campaign=Mehran&epic=mu

Female empowered music such as Beyonce – Who runs the world

Different peoples views on Yahoo answers:

https://uk.answers.yahoo.com/question/index?qid=20120702000200AAZnMEO

https://uk.answers.yahoo.com/question/index?qid=20110218192521AA2qXmr

https://uk.answers.yahoo.com/question/index?qid=20101203114242AAfVYDZ

Hopefully reading through these articles will help to create questions for my ordinal scale questionnaire